Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 251

food industry (11). The consequences of unsafe food can be
devastating for consumers and industries. ISO (10) specifies
requirements for food safety management systems whereby
employees in the food value chain need to demonstrate their
ability to control food safety hazards in order to ensure that
the produced food is safe at the time of consumption.
Animal products are vital components of food and provide
a livelihood for people throughout the world. However,
animal-derived foods are liable to spoilage and can present
risks to public health. In Sub-Saharan Africa, animal products
are mostly traded in informal markets (17) under sub-hygienic
conditions, where it is usually difficult to standardize the
production and processing operations. This can be attributed
to limitation of resources as well as lack of knowledge and low
political commitment. In Ethiopia, the demand for red meat
consumption is growing quickly, in association with economic
growth and dietary changes (2).
The slaughtering process is known to spread pathogenic
microorganisms (14). Publically owned small-scale abattoirs
managed by municipalities are the only legally registered
meat suppliers in most of the towns of Tigray region of
Ethiopia. Each municipality in the region has one abattoir
that mainly slaughters cattle. Most of these abattoirs are
old and have inadequate processing capacity to satisfy the
growing demand for red meat. The abattoirs have similar
settings in all towns of the region, except in Mekelle City (the
capital city of the region), which owns an export standard
abattoir equipped with modern facilities. Thus, food safety
management systems in the small-scale abattoirs in the region
appear to be questionable. Therefore, backyard slaughtering
continues to be the main option in the region as well as
elsewhere in Ethiopia. Backyard slaughtering, which is a
growing global concern (3) can be a threat to public health.
According to FAO/WHO (7), foodborne diseases are
common in developing countries because of poor food
handling and sanitation practices, absence of food safety
management systems, lack of financial resources to invest
in improved facilities, and lack of trained personnel.
Slaughtering and meat processing under non-hygienic and
unsafe conditions can be detrimental to the public, especially
in communities where consumption of raw (uncooked)
meat is part of the culture (14), as is typical in Ethiopians.
According to Mekonnen et al. (15), abattoir workers and
butcher shop owners in Mekelle City had poor knowledge of
food safety, and bacterial loads of red meat were higher than
the limit of WHO recommendations.
The safety of food can be ensured through well-controlled
production, processing, transport and storage. Food safety
management systems have been established globally
and adopted by numerous nations, including Ethiopia.
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP), one
of the systems that tries to identify, evaluate, and control
biological, chemical, and physical hazards in food, is based
on a coherent interdepartmental and multidisciplinary

approach that requires multi-stakeholder engagement
and infrastructural development (7). This paper aims to
evaluate the suitability of implementation of HACCP by
small-scale abattoirs in Tigray region, Ethiopia. We used
Shire Endaselassie municipal abattoir as a model for our
study, because all small-scale abattoirs in the region have
similar infrastructural settings, operational procedures and
facilities. We assessed the slaughtering operations as well as
abattoir facilities and evaluated the possibility of adopting
a HACCP model. Evaluating the suitability of HACCP
has the potential to help in designing and implementing
HACCP models in small-scale abattoirs. Additionally,
integration of HACCP could ensure food safety, improve
the confidence of tourists, and enhance export potential.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Description of the abattoir
The study was conducted at Shire Endaselassie municipal
abattoir, which was established in the 1990s. It is located in the
northwest vicinity of the town of Shire Endaselassie (Fig.1)
and has an area of 5000 m2. The area where the abattoir is
located is largely covered by trees and is a home for vultures
and other birds, as well as pets. This abattoir is the only
legally registered slaughterhouse in the town that provides
cattle slaughtering service. The abattoir was established for
slaughtering cattle, sheep and goats. However, the facility for
slaughtering sheep and goats was not operational until this
study was conducted. The abattoir has a slaughtering capacity
of 40 cattle per day, although it slaughters only about 20 cattle/
day because of low demand from clients who prefer backyard
slaughtering. The reasons for the preference of backyard
slaughtering are related to cost and lack of visible quality
differences. According to the manager of the abattoir, the
number of cattle presented for slaughtering also has declined
due to the addition of tax on the slaughtering service. Before
2015, the abattoir was administered by the municipality, but it
is now outsourced to 12 university-graduated youth as a means
of creating employment in the town.
Data collection
To assess the status and evaluate the suitability of
introducing HACCP to small scale abattoirs in Tigray,
qualitative data were collected using questionnaire survey
and expert observation methods. Qualitative data related
to the abattoir's facilities, hygiene, slaughtering process,
and its location were collected. Expert observation data
were supported with photographs and through discussions
with staffs of the abattoir. The data collection format was
designed to include minimum prerequisites of facilities
and equipment that are mandatory for a small-scale
abattoir as outlined by FAO (4), WHO (20), and general
HACCP principles.

July/August Food Protection Trends

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018

Evaluating the Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in Small Scale Abattoirs of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Training Hard-to-Reach Pennsylvanian Cheesemakers about Food Safety, Using a Low-tech Training Tool
Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers
Beoybon Taud thxee Bio
IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety Highlights
IAFP's European Student Travel Scholarship
PDG Highlight Beverages and Acid/Acidified Foods Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper The Very Real Impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act: A Roundtable Symposium Addressing FSMA’s Effect on Academia and Industry
Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 243
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 244
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 245
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 246
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 247
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 248
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 249
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Evaluating the Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in Small Scale Abattoirs of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 251
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 252
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 253
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 254
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 255
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 256
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Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 262
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 263
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 264
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 265
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Training Hard-to-Reach Pennsylvanian Cheesemakers about Food Safety, Using a Low-tech Training Tool
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 267
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 268
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 269
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 270
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Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 282
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 283
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 285
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 286
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 287
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 288
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Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 296
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 297
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Beoybon Taud thxee Bio
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 299
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety Highlights
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 301
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - IAFP's European Student Travel Scholarship
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - PDG Highlight Beverages and Acid/Acidified Foods Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - General Interest Paper The Very Real Impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act: A Roundtable Symposium Addressing FSMA’s Effect on Academia and Industry
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 305
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 306
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 307
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 308
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 310
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 311
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 312
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 313
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 314
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover4
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