Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 256

Ensuring comprehensive consumer protection requires
good hygienic measures that focus on all stages, including
pre-slaughter handling of live animals, hygienic abattoir
operations and post-slaughter meat processing (6).
Hoisting
The abattoir was equipped with hoisting and hanging
systems and was designed for line slaughtering. However,
these hanging and hoisting systems were not functional during
time of the survey. A relatively unhygienic and unsafe method
of slaughtering, known as batch slaughtering, was observed
in the abattoir. We have noted that slaughtering and dressing
were performed on the floor, which is worn out and difficult to
clean. This can cause contamination of dressed meat.
Chilling room
The abattoir lacks chilling rooms and other facilities for
storing conditionally passed meats and holding them for
longer times with minimum risk of spoilage. To prevent
or even reduce the deterioration of meat by the growth of
microorganisms, chilling has to be carried out quickly at
the end of the slaughter process, and the chilled state has to
be maintained until the meat is processed for consumption
(5). Yet, this abattoir neither practices chilling nor has the
facilities to practice it.
Suitability of application of HACCP in small-scale abattoirs
Following its introduction in the United States in 1971,
HACCP has become an internationally recognized system for
the management of food safety in all companies involved in
the production, processing, storage and distribution of food
for human consumption (1).
HACCP models differ depending on the type of product
that is being considered, the level of the food chain, and the
scale of operation. However, the principles of HACCP are
the same. The HACCP plan consists of the following seven
steps: conducting a hazard analysis; determining critical
control points (CCP); establishing critical limits; establishing
a system to monitor CCPs; establishing corrective actions to
be taken when monitoring indicates that a particular CCP is
not under control; establishing procedures for verification
to confirm that HACCP system is working effectively; and
establishing documentation concerning all procedures and
records appropriate to these principles and their application.
According to the Meat and Seafood Regulatory Authority
guide (12), implementation of a HACCP plan in slaughtering
and dressing of cattle requires meeting certain prerequisites
such as sanitary design; water quality and availability;
sanitation and cleanup procedures for edible areas and food
contact surfaces; personnel hygiene and training; hygienic
dressing; food contact materials (specifications, handling
and storage); repairs and maintenance of equipment; control
of chemicals; vermin/pest control; waste disposal, and
condition of stock (cleanliness of animals).

256

Food Protection Trends July/August

Although HACCP is widely promoted to control food
safety, it cannot avoid all hazards associated with food.
According to Mead (14), Listeria monocytogenes, which can
be found in various niches in the processing environment,
may be present on the floor. Therefore, it is difficult to
exclude Listeria monocytogenes from ready-to-eat meat items.
Salmonella spp., Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus
aureus have been reported to be the major biological hazards
responsible for beef-related diseases (12).
HACCP focuses on prevention to detection of hazards.
Implementation of HACCP by small-scale abattoirs can
have several advantages to the public, the firms and the
environment. However, the abattoir considered in this study
lacks basic equipment, facilities and trained personnel to
devise and implement an appropriate HACCP model. The
concept and principles of HACCP were nonexistent in the
abattoir, which will therefore require additional investments in
infrastructure, facilities, equipment and staff capacity building.
CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATIONS
Based on the findings, it can be concluded that Shire
Endaselassie municipal abattoir did not fulfill the minimum
requirements for small-scale abattoirs set by FAO (4)
and WHO (20), in terms of facilities, equipment and
personnel. Moreover, the slaughtering procedure followed
in the abattoirs was unhygienic and substandard, which
is comparable to backyard slaughtering practices. These
findings can be inferred to other small-scale municipal
abattoirs in Tigray region of Ethiopia. Therefore, the abattoirs
are not equipped with the basic facilities and the personnel
needed for designing and implementing a HACCP plan.
Accordingly, we offer the following recommendations with
regard to introducing HACCP and enhancing food safety:
* Municipalities in the region should consider
equipping the abattoirs with basic facilities such as
chilling equipment, electric power, water, means
of transportation, and waste management systems
consistent with national and international standards.
* In view of the risk, abattoirs should avoid splitting and
washing carcasses on rough and unhygienic floors.
* Because most abattoirs are now located within cities
because of urban expansion, they should practice
appropriate waste management strategies to ensure
public and environmental health.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors appreciate the genuine cooperation offered
during data collection by the staffs of Shire Endaselassie abattoir.



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018

Evaluating the Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in Small Scale Abattoirs of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Training Hard-to-Reach Pennsylvanian Cheesemakers about Food Safety, Using a Low-tech Training Tool
Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers
Beoybon Taud thxee Bio
IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety Highlights
IAFP's European Student Travel Scholarship
PDG Highlight Beverages and Acid/Acidified Foods Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper The Very Real Impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act: A Roundtable Symposium Addressing FSMA’s Effect on Academia and Industry
Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 243
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 244
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 245
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 246
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 247
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 248
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 249
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Evaluating the Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in Small Scale Abattoirs of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 251
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 252
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 253
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 254
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 255
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 256
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Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 262
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 263
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 264
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 265
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Training Hard-to-Reach Pennsylvanian Cheesemakers about Food Safety, Using a Low-tech Training Tool
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 267
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 268
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 269
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 270
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 271
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Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 281
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 282
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 283
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 285
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 286
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 287
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 288
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 289
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Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 296
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 297
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Beoybon Taud thxee Bio
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 299
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety Highlights
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 301
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - IAFP's European Student Travel Scholarship
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - PDG Highlight Beverages and Acid/Acidified Foods Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - General Interest Paper The Very Real Impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act: A Roundtable Symposium Addressing FSMA’s Effect on Academia and Industry
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 305
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 306
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 307
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 308
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 310
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 311
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 312
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 313
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 314
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover4
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