Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 268

Figure 1. Pre-test/post-test experimental control group design (RA = Random assignment)

regression, selection, mortality, and interactions), as proposed by Campbell and Stanley (12). A fixed and short
time interval between pre- and post-tests for both treatment
and control groups helped to minimize interaction and
maturation threats to internal validity. An interval of three
weeks was used to permit travel and visits to all 17 farms.
The first module of the training covered basic food safety
and sanitation as they applied to small cheese producers,
while the second module covered personal hygiene and
included a step-by-step demonstration on proper handwashing. The training was delivered to the treatment groups using
a counter-top flip-chart format (24, 27). The training was the
same for both treatment groups, except that for participants
in treatment group 2, a video vignette was shown before
the training. The counter-top training tool was designed as
a flip-chart with photos and illustrations on the side facing
the trainees and text to be read on the side facing the trainer
(26). Trainees were instructed to interrupt the session at any
time if they had any questions. The delivery of the training
alone (disregarding the video vignette in ×2) usually took
between 45 min and one hour, depending on the questions
and discussions with participants.
The video vignette, used before the delivery of the training
to treatment group 2 (×2), consisted of a mock news excerpt
describing a foodborne listeriosis outbreak involving cheese.
The script for the video vignette was based on a real outbreak involving a cheese company in Kenton, DE (5). In the
vignette, a journalist covering the news interviews a physician
to ask about the disease listeriosis, and a food safety specialist discusses the causes of the outbreak and what could
have been done to avoid it. The video/screenplay had a total

268

Food Protection Trends July/August

run time of six minutes and 34 seconds and was shown just
before the counter-top training was delivered.
For farms in treatment groups 1 and 2, the pre-tests (E1)
and trainings (×1 and ×2) were done on the same day. The
first part of the assessment involved the handwashing skill
evaluation, in which participants were asked to wash their
hands while being recorded for later assessment. After the
skill recording, participants filled out the survey, answering questions on demographics as well as on food safety
knowledge, behavior, and attitudes. After the participants
completed the survey, the training was delivered as described
earlier. On the visit for the post-tests (E2 and E3), the same
sequence (skill assessment, followed by post-survey) was
carried out, without the demographic portion of the survey
or the training. Similarly, participants in the control group
followed the same steps on visits for pre-test (E4) and posttest (E5), but no training was delivered at either visit. For the
surveys and the handwashing recordings (via a smartphone),
a coded system was used to avoid identification of participants. Results from the surveys were compiled using Microsoft Excel® 2013, and responses were transformed into scores
or percentages, where appropriate. All the methodology
applied received approval from Penn State Office of Research
Protection (PSU-IRB #2291).
Questions in the pre- and post-test were built on the basis
of the methodology described by Witkin and Altschuld (38)
to assess cheesemaker knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors
regarding food safety and sanitation. The survey was
reviewed by Penn State faculty and by Extension specialists
for grammar, clarity, and time required for completion.
Based on the feedback, questions were revised, with the final



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018

Evaluating the Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in Small Scale Abattoirs of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Training Hard-to-Reach Pennsylvanian Cheesemakers about Food Safety, Using a Low-tech Training Tool
Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers
Beoybon Taud thxee Bio
IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety Highlights
IAFP's European Student Travel Scholarship
PDG Highlight Beverages and Acid/Acidified Foods Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper The Very Real Impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act: A Roundtable Symposium Addressing FSMA’s Effect on Academia and Industry
Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 243
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 244
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 245
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 246
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 247
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 248
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 249
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Evaluating the Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in Small Scale Abattoirs of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 251
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 252
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 253
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 254
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 255
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 256
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Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 258
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Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 261
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 262
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 263
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 264
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 265
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Training Hard-to-Reach Pennsylvanian Cheesemakers about Food Safety, Using a Low-tech Training Tool
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 267
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 268
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 269
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 270
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 271
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 272
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 273
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 274
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Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 280
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 281
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 282
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 283
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 285
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 286
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 287
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 288
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 289
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Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 291
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Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 294
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 295
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 296
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 297
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Beoybon Taud thxee Bio
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 299
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety Highlights
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 301
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - IAFP's European Student Travel Scholarship
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - PDG Highlight Beverages and Acid/Acidified Foods Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - General Interest Paper The Very Real Impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act: A Roundtable Symposium Addressing FSMA’s Effect on Academia and Industry
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 305
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 306
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 307
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 308
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 310
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 311
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 312
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 313
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 314
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover4
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