Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 269

TABLE 1. Dairy plants' group assignment, number of individual participants per dairy
plant, and number of participants per group
Dairy

Assignment

Plant
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

8
9
10
11
12

13
14
15
16
17

Control
Control
Control
Control
Control
Control
Control

Treatment 1
Treatment 1
Treatment 1
Treatment 1
Treatment 1

Treatment 2
Treatment 2
Treatment 2
Treatment 2
Treatment 2

Number of individual participants per attribute
Knowledge and attitude

Behavior

Skill (handwashing)

3
1
2
2
1
2
1

3
1
1
2
1
2
1

3
1
2
1
1
1
0

Total participants: n = 12

n = 11

n=9

1
3
1
1
3

1
3
1
1
3

1
3
1
1
3

Total participants: n = 9

n=9

n=9

2
3
2
2
1

2
3
2
2
1

2
2
2
1
0

Total participants: n = 10

n = 10

n=7

survey consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions for the
demographics portion; 16, 5-point Likert Scale questions for
the attitude portion (anchors: Strongly Disagree, Disagree,
Neither Agree nor Disagree, Agree, and Strongly Agree); and
10 multiple-choice and open-ended questions for the behavior
portion. The 10 self-assessment behavior questions included
three open-ended questions for numerical values and one
question in which participants could choose more than one
correct answer, with the remaining questions being singleanswer, multiple choice. The knowledge portion of the survey
had 10 multiple-choice questions, with eight questions having
a single correct answer and two allowing more than one correct
answer, for a total of 15 correct alternatives and a total possible
score of 15 points. The demographics, behavior, and attitude
questions were based on the survey used for an initial needs
assessment (19), while the knowledge questions were based on
the training material and covered basic food safety, sanitation,
and personal hygiene (17). The survey was estimated to take

cheesemakers 15 minutes to complete. A post-hoc reliability
assessment was performed using Cronbach's alpha on the
attitudinal questions of the survey. Cronbach's alpha is a
measure of reliability or internal consistency, i.e., how well a
test measures what it aims to measure (34).
All participants agreed to the video recording of the
handwashing activity on a smartphone. Participants were
instructed to wash their hands the same way they do during
cheesemaking. Recordings were taken via a close-up shot of
the hands to avoid identification of participants and to be
able to record the sounds made during the handwashing.
Participants were judged to have finished washing their hands
when they threw away disposable paper towels, stopped drying their hands using a non-disposable towel, or otherwise
signaled that they were finished in the cases when they did
not dry their hands.
A scoring system was used to evaluate the recorded
handwashing skills. The system was adapted from other

July/August Food Protection Trends

269



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018

Evaluating the Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in Small Scale Abattoirs of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Training Hard-to-Reach Pennsylvanian Cheesemakers about Food Safety, Using a Low-tech Training Tool
Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers
Beoybon Taud thxee Bio
IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety Highlights
IAFP's European Student Travel Scholarship
PDG Highlight Beverages and Acid/Acidified Foods Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper The Very Real Impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act: A Roundtable Symposium Addressing FSMA’s Effect on Academia and Industry
Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 243
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 244
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 245
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 246
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 247
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 248
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 249
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Evaluating the Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in Small Scale Abattoirs of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 251
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 252
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 253
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 254
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 255
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 256
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 257
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 258
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 259
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 260
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 261
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 262
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 263
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 264
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 265
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Training Hard-to-Reach Pennsylvanian Cheesemakers about Food Safety, Using a Low-tech Training Tool
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 267
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 268
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 269
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 270
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 271
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 272
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 273
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 274
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 275
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 276
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 277
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 278
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 279
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 280
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 281
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 282
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 283
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 285
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 286
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 287
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 288
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 289
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 290
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 291
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 292
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 293
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 294
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 295
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 296
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 297
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Beoybon Taud thxee Bio
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 299
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety Highlights
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 301
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - IAFP's European Student Travel Scholarship
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - PDG Highlight Beverages and Acid/Acidified Foods Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - General Interest Paper The Very Real Impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act: A Roundtable Symposium Addressing FSMA’s Effect on Academia and Industry
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 305
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 306
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 307
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 308
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 310
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 311
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 312
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 313
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 314
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover4
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