Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 270

TABLE 2. Steps evaluated during handwashing and points assigned
Step

Action (points awarded)

1. Wet hands

No (0); Partial/only backs or palms (1); All/both backs and palms (2)

2. Apply soap

No (0); Yes (2)

3a. Lather vigor

No vigor/no sound (0); Minimal vigor/barely audible (1); Vigorous/clearly audible (2)

3b. Lather time

5 seconds or less (0); 5 to 10 sec. (1); more than 10 sec. (2)

4. Rinse

No (0); Partial/only backs or palms (1); All/both backs and palms (2)

5. Dry

No (0); Partial/only backs or palms (1); All/both backs and palms (2)

systems used by medical professionals (2) and took into
consideration the handwashing steps presented at the
training. Five handwashing steps were evaluated, and points
were assigned to different levels of completion of each step.
Lather was the only step evaluated in two parameters (vigor
and time) and had a maximum combined score of 4 points,
2 for vigor and 2 for time. Vigor was awarded 2 points for
clearly audible lathering sound, 1 point for barely audible
sound, and 0 for no sound. The level of sound was assessed
qualitatively by a researcher using the same earphones,
computer, and volume level. For lather time, 0 points were
awarded for 5 seconds or less, 1 point for 5 to 10 seconds,
and 2 points for more than 10 seconds. When only the hands'
backs or palms were used during the steps 'wet hands,' 'rinse,'
and 'dry,' a partial score of 1 was awarded. The criteria for
scoring are presented in Table 2.
In addition to the scoring tool, four questions that were
filled out before and after handwashing were exploratory and
were not assigned any points; these assessed handwashing
station characteristics: 1. Is hot water present at handwashing
station? (Yes/No); Is soap available at handwashing station? (Yes/No); 3. What kind of towel is available? (Paper/
Cotton/None/Other); 4. Is hand sanitizer available at
handwashing station? (Yes/No). A fifth question, about total
handwashing time, was determined by researchers when the
video was evaluated. The recordings of the handwashing steps
allowed a precise measurement of the total time of the handwashing process and the lathering time. Time was assessed
with the Android 6.0 stopwatch option of the stock clock app
on a Nexus 5× phone (LG Electronics, Seoul, South Korea).
Participants in the treatment groups evaluated the program
with six questions: two 5-point Likert scale questions and
four single-answer, multiple-choice questions.
Statistical analysis
Pre- and post-test scores were compiled, and measures
of central tendency and percent scores were calculated to
determine changes in individual and overall participant
performance between pre- and post-test assessments and
270

Food Protection Trends July/August

among treatment groups. Two approaches were used.
For the first approach, each participant was considered
individually, while for the second, scores for participants
from the same farm were averaged. A one-way ANOVA was
used to compare the means among control, treatment 1,
and treatment 2 groups for the different attributes. A paired
Students t-test was used to detect significant differences in
responses between pre- and post-test assessments. A twosample Students t-test was used to determine significant
differences between the two treatment groups in the
pre-test when testing for the influence of demographic
characteristics on the base level of the attributes measured.
Post-hoc Cronbachs alpha reliability assessment was
performed for the attitude assessment. ANOVA and
Cronbachs tests were carried out using Minitab® 17
Statistical Software (Minitab Inc., State College, PA).
Students t-tests were carried out using Microsoft® Office
Excel® 2013 (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA).
RESULTS
Demographics
Participating farms' demographic characteristics are
presented in Table 3. Significant findings included the
following: more than 70% of farms define their operation
as artisan and/or farmstead, based on the American Cheese
Society definition (8); 88% (15/17) of farms produce raw
milk cheeses; and 73% (11/15) of farms indicated that they
used raw milk and would not use pasteurized milk to make
their cheese(s). Some participants reported other reasons
for the use of raw milk in the open-ended option as follows:
"We do not have a pasteurizer yet, but are exploring getting
one;" "Cheese [is] aged 60 days or more so the bacteria is gone.
Better flavor. Fresh cheeses are pasteurized;" "Customers prefer
raw cheese when available so I make raw when permitted (as in
aged cheeses);" "I like to produce a product that is minimally
manipulated - using the naturally occurring fauna that is present
in the milk - but I also use pasteurized milk for fresh cheese;" "If
we don't have enough time to pasteurize or if [the] pasteurizer
isn't functioning correctly- back up [sic] plan;" and "Customers



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018

Evaluating the Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in Small Scale Abattoirs of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Training Hard-to-Reach Pennsylvanian Cheesemakers about Food Safety, Using a Low-tech Training Tool
Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers
Beoybon Taud thxee Bio
IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety Highlights
IAFP's European Student Travel Scholarship
PDG Highlight Beverages and Acid/Acidified Foods Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper The Very Real Impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act: A Roundtable Symposium Addressing FSMA’s Effect on Academia and Industry
Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 243
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 244
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 245
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 246
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 247
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 248
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 249
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Evaluating the Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in Small Scale Abattoirs of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 251
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 252
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 253
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 254
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 255
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 256
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 257
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 258
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 259
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 260
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 261
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 262
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 263
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 264
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 265
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Training Hard-to-Reach Pennsylvanian Cheesemakers about Food Safety, Using a Low-tech Training Tool
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 267
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 268
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 269
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 270
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 271
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 272
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 273
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 274
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 275
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 276
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 277
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 278
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 279
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 280
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 281
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 282
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 283
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 285
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 286
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 287
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 288
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 289
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 290
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 291
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 292
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 293
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 294
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 295
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 296
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 297
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Beoybon Taud thxee Bio
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 299
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety Highlights
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 301
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - IAFP's European Student Travel Scholarship
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - PDG Highlight Beverages and Acid/Acidified Foods Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - General Interest Paper The Very Real Impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act: A Roundtable Symposium Addressing FSMA’s Effect on Academia and Industry
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 305
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 306
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 307
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 308
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 310
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 311
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 312
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 313
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 314
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover4
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