Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 282

TABLE 10. Participants' responses and percentage when asked how much the training
helped them to improve their food safety and sanitation in different topics (n = 17)
Question

Not at all
effective

Not very
effective

Somewhat
effective

Very effective

(%)

#

(%)

#

(%)

#

(%)

#

How effective was the countertop/flip-chart training
tool as a delivery method for food safety training?

(0)

0

(0)

0

(24)

4

(76)

13

How effective was the handwashing activity to improve
your handwashing technique?

(0)

0

(6)

1

(47)

8

(47)

8

Definitely no

Probably no

Probably yes

Definitely yes

(%)

#

(%)

#

(%)

#

(%)

#

Do you think that any improvements to your food
safety knowledge, behavior, attitude, and skills (if any)
will be maintained over time?

(0)

0

(12)

2

(47)

8

(71)

7

Do you think that the video vignette/case study helped
you pay more attention to the training?*

(0)

0

(14)

1

(43)

3

(43)

3

*Only participants that viewed the video vignette answered this question (n = 6).
# number of responses.

Although no increase in handwashing frequency was
detected, the handwashing performance of participants
after the training in the treatment groups was significantly
better than the performance of those in the control group.
There was an increase in both score and time. This finding
could be related to the extensive, multiple mentions and
description of the steps involved in proper handwashing
and the handwashing activity during the training. In the
activity, after going over the proper steps for handwashing,
researchers would ask participants to execute each one of the
steps, while also mentioning aloud each one of the steps and
their instructions. Handwashing training has been shown to
be a good way to improve handwashing performance (23,
32), and Lillquist et al. showed that training with hands-on
handwashing activity was superior to lecture-style training
(16). In this study, although not statistically significant, both
score and time for handwashing increased in the treatment
group that was exposed to the video vignette (3.5 points,
18.4 seconds) and were higher than those for treatment
group 1 (2.6 points and 12.7 seconds). Because of time
constraints, the same researcher who delivered the training
scored the handwashing skills. This is a limitation of this
study, and future studies using a similar approach should use
multiple scorers.

282

Food Protection Trends July/August

Self-reported food safety training in the demographic
portion of the survey was a good predictor of knowledge and
attitude scores, indicating that prior exposure to any kind of
food safety training had positive effects on knowledge and
attitudes. These findings reinforce the belief that appropriate
food safety training can improve food safety performance, as
has been reported before in retail food establishments (1).
While the results of this study revealed positive gains in
knowledge about food safety and sanitation and performance
improvement in handwashing skills, further evaluation of the
training program is needed to measure possible effectiveness
for behavior and attitude changes that could not be detected or
did not occur, possibly because of the small sample size. Also,
short-term (3-6 months) and long-term (1-2 years) post-test
assessments could reveal whether the gains were maintained
and if the increase in knowledge was followed by later changes
in attitude and behavior. The results of this study and a
cheesemaker food safety and sanitation training program may
be of interest to food safety educators, Extension educators,
and local and/or public health agencies in the U.S. who are
looking for ways to reach this underserved audience.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors wish to acknowledge funding for this project
from the Department of Food Science, Penn State University,
and a Program Priority Initiative funded through the College
of Agricultural Sciences and Penn State Extension.



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018

Evaluating the Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in Small Scale Abattoirs of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Training Hard-to-Reach Pennsylvanian Cheesemakers about Food Safety, Using a Low-tech Training Tool
Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers
Beoybon Taud thxee Bio
IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety Highlights
IAFP's European Student Travel Scholarship
PDG Highlight Beverages and Acid/Acidified Foods Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper The Very Real Impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act: A Roundtable Symposium Addressing FSMA’s Effect on Academia and Industry
Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 243
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 244
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 245
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 246
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 247
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 248
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 249
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Evaluating the Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in Small Scale Abattoirs of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 251
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 252
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 253
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 254
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Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 262
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 263
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 264
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 265
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Training Hard-to-Reach Pennsylvanian Cheesemakers about Food Safety, Using a Low-tech Training Tool
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 267
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 268
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 269
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 270
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Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 281
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 282
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 283
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 285
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 286
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 287
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 288
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Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 296
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 297
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Beoybon Taud thxee Bio
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 299
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety Highlights
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 301
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - IAFP's European Student Travel Scholarship
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - PDG Highlight Beverages and Acid/Acidified Foods Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - General Interest Paper The Very Real Impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act: A Roundtable Symposium Addressing FSMA’s Effect on Academia and Industry
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 305
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 306
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 307
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 308
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 310
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 311
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 312
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Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover4
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