Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 291

remain safe for consumption is within the four-hour guidance
of the 2013 Food Code, if any element of the shifts were to
run longer than expected, this could become an issue (34,
40). During the diversion shifts, all food was taken out at
the same time. Instead, volunteers could take one food item
out at a time to repackage. After weighing that food, it could
be taken back to the cooler for storage while the next food
is retrieved for repackaging. This lessens the amount of time
food remains out of a temperature controlled environment.
During delivery, volunteers could include frozen ice- or
gel-packs with the food in the insulated coolers to maintain
an appropriate temperature until it reaches the community
partner (23).
Volunteer health and hygiene
Varying levels of health and hygiene awareness across
all shifts were observed. While only one volunteer selfreported feeling symptoms of foodborne illness that would
have precluded them from handling food, no volunteers
were asked about that during the shift. This could have been
due to an assumption that a volunteer would have already
known not to arrive if they were unwell, or the shift leaders
were not trained to know the potential impact on those who
receive the food and did not remember to ask. The former
assumption presents a higher level of risk to the program,
given that some volunteers could be participating for course
credit. They may value receiving credit more than their
overall health or potential impact on the recipient of the food.
Handwashing was observed to differing degrees throughout
the shifts. In diversion, the lack of handwashing between
using pairs of gloves presents a risk of contamination through
bacterial contamination of hands when taking gloves off and
contamination of the new gloves when putting the next pair
on (26, 30, 33, 41). There was an overall lack of handwashing
observed in food-handling situations when it was already
packaged. While the food is protected by the package from
contamination, bacteria already on their hands can remain
on the outer packaging. When the hunger relief organization
volunteer goes to remove the food from the packaging, they
could contaminate their hands and then the food (2, 21).
Collection of food from unsafe sources
Recovering food directly from the salad bar creates the
risk for contaminated food to be recovered and distributed
through the program. It has been documented that food
served through a salad bar or similar self-serve stations can
be contaminated with pathogenic bacteria (11, 19, 21). This
is a result of improper hot/cold holding temperatures as
well as consumer behaviors such as not properly utilizing
serving utensils, coughing or sneezing onto the food, or
cross-contaminating food while serving themselves (11, 19,
21). Programs should determine whether it is worth the
risk to recover salad bar items, or whether volunteers should
recover only unserved items handled by those trained in

food-handling. Utilizing previously used serving utensils
keeps a potential source of contamination in the recovery
process. Instead, volunteers should utilize unused, cleaned,
and sanitized serving utensils to recover each food.
Record keeping
This program is not inspected by a state health agency
and is not required to maintain the same records as
inspected facilities (e.g., time/temperature logs, HACCP
plan documentation, etc.) (40). Lack of requirement does
not equate to lack of need. Records should be maintained
for the program, with examples of relevant data outlined
in Table 4. These records would provide validation for safe
food-handling practices and would be vital should any food
handled by the program be recalled or if anyone became
ill after consumption. These records could also include
specific behaviors (e.g., handwashing, cleaning and sanitizing
practices) to reinforce their completion during shifts.
Use of technology
The prevalence of cell phones and computers during
diversion, cooking, and delivery shifts presents both
challenges and opportunities. Cell phones have been shown
to be vectors for transmitting pathogens and causing illness
(4, 20, 24). Given previous discussion about lack of adequate
handwashing when handling food, collection of food from
unsafe sources, and the potential impact on recipients of
recovered food, the use of this technology introduces a risk to
the food safety of these programs. An approach to lessening
this risk would be to eliminate the use of technology
during shifts. However, this does not seem feasible and
could also become a barrier to volunteer recruitment and
retention. Technology use could be allowed under certain
circumstances, such as requiring that cell phones be cleaned
and sanitized prior to the start of each shift. Additionally,
volunteers could be asked to wash their hands ahead of any
food-handling. Technology (i.e., cell phones) could also
become a tool for record keeping. Using an online survey
or application, information could be recorded in real time
without having to maintain and store paper records.
Volunteer onboarding and continuing education
Given that this program is not regulated by a health
agency, there are no required safe food-handling trainings for
volunteers to complete in order to serve (40). All volunteers
were provided with some level of role-specific safe foodhandling information, making it a shared responsibility.
However, this also created multiple levels of accountability.
While information needs to be shared with the volunteers
as to what they should wear and under what conditions they
should/should not volunteer (e.g., illness), the shift leaders
and semester-long volunteers should be trained in how to
make volunteers aware of safe food-handling behaviors
throughout the shift. The latter group should be informed

July/August Food Protection Trends

291



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018

Evaluating the Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in Small Scale Abattoirs of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Training Hard-to-Reach Pennsylvanian Cheesemakers about Food Safety, Using a Low-tech Training Tool
Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers
Beoybon Taud thxee Bio
IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety Highlights
IAFP's European Student Travel Scholarship
PDG Highlight Beverages and Acid/Acidified Foods Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper The Very Real Impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act: A Roundtable Symposium Addressing FSMA’s Effect on Academia and Industry
Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 243
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 244
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 245
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 246
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 247
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 248
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 249
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Evaluating the Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in Small Scale Abattoirs of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 251
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 252
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 253
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 254
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 255
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 256
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 257
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 258
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 259
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 260
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 261
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 262
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 263
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 264
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 265
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Training Hard-to-Reach Pennsylvanian Cheesemakers about Food Safety, Using a Low-tech Training Tool
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 267
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 268
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 269
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 270
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 271
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 272
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 273
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 274
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 275
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 276
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 277
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 278
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 279
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 280
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 281
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 282
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 283
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 285
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 286
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 287
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 288
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 289
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 290
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 291
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 292
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 293
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 294
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 295
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 296
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 297
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Beoybon Taud thxee Bio
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 299
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety Highlights
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 301
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - IAFP's European Student Travel Scholarship
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - PDG Highlight Beverages and Acid/Acidified Foods Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - General Interest Paper The Very Real Impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act: A Roundtable Symposium Addressing FSMA’s Effect on Academia and Industry
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 305
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 306
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 307
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 308
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 310
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 311
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 312
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 313
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 314
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover4
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