ITE Journal - May 2020 - 36

Anbefaling 2/S 17-2018 Kartlegging av utflytende kryss med tanke på utbedring
Det aktuelle krysset er uvanlig utflytende og UAG anbefaler Vegavdeling Agder at krysset strammes
inn. Utformingen er vurdert som en medvirkende faktor i denne ulykken og det er kjent kunnskap
at utflytende kryss kan gi både uheldig plassering i krysset og høy fart gjennom krysset, og igjen
økt risiko for ulykker. Jf. også omtale i kap.5. UAG anbefaler at Vegdirektoratet eller Region Sør
gjennomfører kartlegging av tilsvarende kryss andre steder i landet/regionen med sikte på utbedring.
Figure 6. A typical conclusion from a Norwegian accident analysis investigation report from a crash: "Recommendation: Survey of spacious intersections
with the intent of reconstruction. The intersection in question is unusually spacious, and the accident analysis committee recommends that this intersection
is tightened (meaning that the radii and dimensions of the intersection should be reduced through reconstruction). The design has been regarded as a
contributing factor in this accident, and it is well known that spacious intersections can cause unfortunate vehicle trajectories and high speeds, which again
increases the risk of crashes. The crash analysis committee also recommends that the national or regional road authority survey all similar intersections in the
nation or region, with the intent of reconstruction." Source: The Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Crash analysis report S-17 2018, page 26.
where the fatal crash occurred. These reports also gives transportation professionals an understanding of crash causation, a concept of
a Safe System approach to transportation safety. 
The City of Oslo also looked at certain land uses, such as schools
and high-density mixed-use areas, that may cause pedestrians
and bicyclists to be particularly vulnerable in making roadway
decisions. On a city-wide scale, city officials put safety standards
around schools, including limiting speeds to 30 kilometers per
hour (km/hr) (18 miles per hour [mph]), installing speed humps
to slow speeds, and reducing pedestrian crossing distances to 8
meters (m) (26 feet [ft.]). In high density mixed-use areas with
many pedestrians and bicyclists present where closing streets to
cars is not an option, the City of Oslo considers approaches such
as limiting speeds through roadway interventions, or limiting
traffic by implementing one-way streets. Roadway interventions the
City of Oslo considers include narrowing and shifting lanes with
vertical elements, installing tight curb radii requiring drivers to
turn at intersections more slowly, ensuring streets have separated
bicycle facilities wherever possible, and designing wide sidewalks
to allow many pedestrians to walk. Transportation experts in Oslo
have found that these interventions make for a more complex street
environment where drivers are forced to pay attention, drive slower,
and be cautious of pedestrians and bicyclists. 
The City of Oslo owns the vast majority of roadways with
[within] in city limits. Having clear ownership makes it easier for
Oslo officials to evaluate safety and make design decisions. However,
City of Oslo officials must also still work under Norwegian policies
and standards, such as the Norwegian Public Roads Administration
Handbook 300 which sets the rules for uniform traffic control
devices, much like the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices
(MUTCD) in the United States. But Oslo maintains its own road,
street, and bicycle infrastructure design handbooks. In the last
36

May 2020

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revision, the standard sidewalk width was increased from 2.5 to 3
m (8 to 10 ft.), to accommodate increasing pedestrian traffic. From a
local goal-setting standpoint, owning the majority of right-of-ways
in Oslo also makes it easier to set aggressive targets for safety and
mobility. Oslo has a modal share of 31 percent for walking, and
seven percent for cycling (2018), but aims for a cycling modal share
of 25 percent in 2025.3 Oslo has a well-functioning public transit
system, with a 29 percent modal share. 
Oslo implemented a congestion charge in 2018 and installed 52
new toll gates in a system that emulates road pricing. The road tolls
finance a large part of the investments and operations in walking,
cycling, public transit, and road safety. Most road safety measures
are implemented by the Agency of Urban Environment directly,
without having to get political approval of funding for smaller
individual projects, including replacing parking with bike lanes,
lowering speed limits, and building bump outs and speed humps. 
Norwegian law prioritizes pedestrians having the right of way
on all pedestrian crossings, and jaywalking is not considered a
punishable offence in Norway. On city streets, most drivers will
expect pedestrians to start crossing on unsignalized crossings
without even looking for a car. The City of Oslo goes above and
beyond to ensure pedestrians can always be seen. Intersections are
a key area where transportation professionals in Oslo make design
decisions based on pedestrian visibility, such as installing bump outs
at intersections where parked cars or turning lanes obstruct sight
lines. Oslo also requires high visibility ladder style crosswalks at all
pedestrian crossings. Often, the City of Oslo will take a step-wise
approach typically in two to three stages, such as starting with
temporary contraflow bike lanes on a one way street, then removing
parking to install a permanent one-way separated cycle track. 
While the city has the authority to set speed limits as it sees fit,
it prioritizes control of vehicle speeds by physical measures rather


https://www.vegvesen.no/fag/publikasjoner/handboker/om-handbokene/vegnormalene/n300 https://www.vegvesen.no/fag/publikasjoner/handboker/om-handbokene/vegnormalene/n300

ITE Journal - May 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ITE Journal - May 2020

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