November/December 2022 - 94

purpose in new construction. Most
earth materials are recycled efficiently,
often with screening and associated
sorting by particle size being one of the
few operations. Foundation concrete
can be crushed for reuse and steel
reinforcing separated for recycling.
Reuse
Construction of geotechnical project
works is relatively energy-intensive,
and most of the energy is typically
supplied by nonrenewable sources.
Excavating, tunneling, boring, retaining,
supporting, dewatering and other
earthwork operations, moving or
removing soil and rock, are examples of
common energy intensive steps used in
foundation construction. After this
phase, substructure and superstructure
components are usually placed in the
open air, an arguably less complex and
energy consuming construct ion
environment. Today's foundation
materials are usually concrete and steel,
both of which are carbon-dioxide
intensive to manufacture. Globally, the
building and construction sector emits a
substantial amount of carbon dioxide
(CO2) either in the production of
construction materials, or in the
operation of construction machinery
and equipment for transportation of
materials or placement on-site.
Depending on the project, geotechnical
c omp onen t s s u c h a s s ha l l ow
foundations, driven piles or drilled
shafts can represent a relatively large
share of installed concrete and steel due
to the size or installed depth of the
foundation systems, including footings
and pile caps.
From a life cycle perspective, a
foundation system begins as raw
material components are mined,
extracted, refined and supplied to a
manufacturer. Construction material
manufacturing, transportation and
construction installation follow. During
facility operations, there may be
maintenance and repair, although this
is more common for above-grade
94 * DEEP FOUNDATIONS * NOV/DEC 2022
Foundation size can often be reduced by using more advanced site investigation techniques such seismic
cone penetration
component s . St ruc tura l reuse ,
demolition or abandonment may
follow at the end of the project life cycle
with some amount of material reuse
and recycling.
Foundation reuse can be thought of
as having two basic forms: (1) continued
use of existing in-place foundation
elements essentially for their original
purpose, or (2) repurposing in-place
foundation elements as components of
a newly designed system. Examples
include strengthening or enhancing
existing foundations using techniques
such as widening the foundation cap,
micropile underpinning or using
ground improvement methods. Both
applications of foundation reuse have
sustainability benefits. The overall
benefits of foundation reuse include:
* Reduces the need for new construction
materials (usually concrete and
steel, which are resource and energy
intensive to produce).
* Allows original materials, labor and
investment to be used to their fullest
extent.
* Reduces the amount of waste
material from demolished aboveground
components.
* Reduces pollution caused by raw
materials production.
* Reduces greenhouse gas emissions
from transportation (hauling to the
site) and on-site construction
equipment.
* Reduces the amount of labor, site
construction activities, schedule
risk and other risks associated with
new foundation construction.
* Saves energy, time and money
associated with manufacture,
transport, site preparation and new
construction.

November/December 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of November/December 2022

TOC
November/December 2022 - Intro
November/December 2022 - 1
November/December 2022 - 2
November/December 2022 - TOC
November/December 2022 - 4
November/December 2022 - 5
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