Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 263

Figure 4. Temperatures after filling for insulated and un-insulated jars.
The temperatures (in degrees C) resulting from the three filling steps for
uninsulated (light gray bars) and insulated (dark gray bars) jars are
shown for the indicated initial cucumber temperatures (20oC, 40oC, or
60oC) and fill steps (1-3). For all treatments, there was no significant
difference between insulated and uninsulated jars (P > 0.05).

Jones (9, 10) for processing to achieve quality factors, were
reported. The accumulated processing times were presented
as a mean value for center and periphery cucumbers. For
experiments at 40°C or 60°C, although total processing
times varied from 16 min to 37 min, all treatments achieved
the F160 (71.1°C) of 5.6 min or longer, indicating that
minimum safe processing parameters were achieved by the
process. For trials with a 20°C initial temperature, however,
this F160 value was achieved only with a total processing
time of 45 min (Table 1). Hold times at 73.9°C of 4.5 min
up to 13.9 min were achieved, and were found to have a
linear trend related to total processing time (r2 = 0.646, data
not shown), indicating that optimization of holding times
may allow a variety of time-temperature conditions for
processing to meet quality objectives.
Numerical analysis
The numerical model was validated for selected timetemperature profiles with insulated and non-insulated jars.
Fig. 5A and 5B show observed and predicted temperature
data for cucumbers in insulated or non-insulated jars with an
initial temperature of 21.2°C or 34.9°C (respectively). The
estimated temperatures for both uninsulated jars and insulted
jars all had RMSE values for numerical vs. experimental data
of less than 2.9°C. The estimated temperature distribution at
the mid height of the jar during the third fill-hold step with
non-insulated jars is shown in Fig. 6. Future studies with
alternate spear packing density may be helpful to determine
how spear packing affects equilibration temperatures.
DISCUSSION
The US FDA requires thermal processing parameters
in process filing forms for acidified foods. Commercial
processes must achieve a 5-log unit reduction in bacterial

pathogens for production and sale of acidified vegetables
in the U.S. The time-temperature relationship for achieving
safety of acidified foods are described (4) by log-linear
model parameters similar to those described by Ball and
Olsen (1). While D and z values and F values are clearly
defined for sterilization processes, pasteurization of
acidified vegetable products does not lead to sterilization.
For acidified foods, published thermal processing parameters (4, 5) include D (defined for acidified foods as a
5-log10 reduction time for vegetative bacterial pathogens),
z (temperature change in °F for 1 log10 change in D value)
and F160 values (time in min of processing to achieve a 5-log
reduction at 71.1°C, or 160°F). Typically, 71.1°C (160°F)
is used as the reference temperature for acidified foods.
When these parameters were used, a 5-log reduction in

5A. Observed and predicted temperature data for an insulated jar

5B. Observed and predicted temperature data for a non-insulated jar

Figure 5. Numerical estimates and experimental values thermal
treatments of brined spears. The time-temperature data for
insulated (A) and uninsulated (B) jars, including spears at the center
(circles) or the periphery (triangles) of the jars, are shown.
The solid lines represent the numerical estimate for the predicted
cucumber temperature (for both periphery and center).

July/August Food Protection Trends

263



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018

Evaluating the Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in Small Scale Abattoirs of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Training Hard-to-Reach Pennsylvanian Cheesemakers about Food Safety, Using a Low-tech Training Tool
Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers
Beoybon Taud thxee Bio
IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety Highlights
IAFP's European Student Travel Scholarship
PDG Highlight Beverages and Acid/Acidified Foods Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper The Very Real Impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act: A Roundtable Symposium Addressing FSMA’s Effect on Academia and Industry
Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 243
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 244
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 245
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 246
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 247
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 248
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 249
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Evaluating the Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in Small Scale Abattoirs of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 251
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 252
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 253
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 254
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 255
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 256
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 257
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 258
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 259
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 260
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 261
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 262
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 263
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 264
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 265
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Training Hard-to-Reach Pennsylvanian Cheesemakers about Food Safety, Using a Low-tech Training Tool
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 267
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 268
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 269
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 270
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 271
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 272
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 273
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 274
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 275
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 276
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 277
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 278
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 279
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 280
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 281
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 282
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 283
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 285
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 286
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 287
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 288
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 289
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 290
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 291
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 292
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 293
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 294
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 295
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 296
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 297
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Beoybon Taud thxee Bio
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 299
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety Highlights
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 301
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - IAFP's European Student Travel Scholarship
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - PDG Highlight Beverages and Acid/Acidified Foods Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - General Interest Paper The Very Real Impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act: A Roundtable Symposium Addressing FSMA’s Effect on Academia and Industry
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 305
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 306
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 307
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 308
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 310
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 311
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 312
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 313
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 314
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover4
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