Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 265

that achieve a selected (cumulative) heat process. For the
initial filling steps, it may be possible to use a brine without
flavoring ingredients to prevent off flavors due to heating.
Brine from the initial filling steps could then be recycled
to reduce water and energy usage for processing, with only
the final fill containing the flavored cover liquor for the
product formulation. Further work may include an analysis
of potential energy and water savings and optimization of
processing conditions for selected commercial processes.
CONCLUSIONS
A hot-fill pasteurization method consisting of repeated
filling of jars containing cucumber spears with preheated
brine was investigated. The target F160 value for established
safe processing of acidified cucumber spears with a reference
temperature of 71.1°C (160°F) for 5.6 min was achieved with
three sequential fill-hold steps for most of the filling regimens
studied. However, achieving this F value required a 45 min
process for cucumbers with an initial temperature of 20°C.
All filling regimens with cucumber spears at 40°C or 60°C
initial temperatures exceeded the F160 of 5.6 min. Processing
times and temperatures at or above 73.9°C (165°F) for up
to 13.4 min were achieved for cucumber spears with initial
temperatures of 40°C or 60°C, likely meeting conditions
typical of most commercial processes. A numerical model
was developed that may be useful for optimizing filling
regimens to achieve desired time-temperature conditions.
Further research may be needed to allow commercial

application of the method, including the development of
jar inverters for processing lines, to allow draining of jars
with cucumber spears, and sanitary measures consistent
with good manufacturing practice would have to be in place
to prevent recontamination of jars with pathogens during
refilling with brines. It is also likely that a cooling step may be
required to prevent over-processing once the repeated fills are
completed. We have demonstrated that safe and shelf stable
acidified vegetables could be produced with the repeated hot
fill method, introducing sufficient heat into the product to
attain desired quality and safety parameters, and potentially
reducing water use and increasing energy efficiency as an
alternative to tunnel pasteurizers.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was supported in part by a U.S. Department
of Agriculture (USDA) National Integrated Food Safety
Initiative grant (2011-51110-31019), Pickle Packers
International, Inc. (Washington, D.C.), and USDA
Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension
Service project 2006-01240. The authors thank Mt. Olive
Pickle Company (Mt. Olive, NC) for generous donations of
cucumbers, jars, and other supplies, and Dr. Josip Simunovic
for helpful advice. Mention of a trademark or proprietary
product does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the
product by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture or North Carolina
Agricultural Research Service, nor does it imply approval to
the exclusion of other products that may be suitable.

REFERENCES
1. Ball, C. O., and F. C. W. Olsen. 1957.
Sterilization in food technology: theory,
practice, and calculations, 1st ed. McGrawHill Book Co., New York.
2. Breidt, F. Jr. 2006. Safety of minimally
processed, acidified and fermented vegetable
products, p. 313-335. In G. M. Sapers, J. R.
Gorny, A. E. Yousef (ed.), Microbiology of
fruits and vegetables. CRC Press, Inc., Boca
Raton, FL.
3. Breidt, F. Jr., and R. N. Costilow. 2004.
Processing and safety, p. 5-1 to 5-15. In
H. P. Fleming, and R. N. Costilow (ed.),
Acidified foods: Principles of handling and
preservation. Pickle Packers International,
Inc., St. Charles, IL.
4. Breidt, F., K. Kay, J. Osborne, B. Ingham,
and F. Arritt. 2014. Thermal processing of
acidified foods with pH 4.1 to 4.6. Food Prot.
Trends 34:132-138.
5. Breidt, F., K. P. Sandeep, and F. Arritt. 2010.
Use of linear models for thermal processing
acidified foods. Food Prot. Trends 30:268-272.
6. Comsol Multiphysics. 2015. Theory for the
non-isothermal flow and conjugate heat
transfer interfaces, p. 265-272. In Comsol
multiphysics, comsol heat transfer user's guide
version 5.1. Comsol AB., Burlington, MA.

7. Derossi, A., T. De Pilli, M. P. La Penna, and
C. Severini. 2012. Prediction of heating
length to obtain a definite F value during
pasteurization of canned food. J. Food Proc.
Eng. 36:211-219.
8. Esselen, W. B., R. E. E. Anderson, L. F. Ruder
Jr., and I. J. Pflug. 1951. Pasteurized fresh
whole pickle. I. Pasteurization studies. Food
Technol. 5:279-284.
9. Etchells, J. L., and I. D. Jones. 1942. Mortality
of microorganisms during pasteurization of
cucumber pickle. Fruit Prod. J. 21:330-332.
10. Etchells, J. L., and I. D. Jones. 1943. Mortality
of microorganisms during pasteurization of
cucumber pickle. Food Res. 8:33-44.
11. Fasina, O. O., and H. P. Fleming. 2001. Heat
transfer characteristics of cucumbers during
blanching. J. Food Eng. 47:203-210.
12. FDA, Food and Drug Administration. 1979.
Acidified foods. 21 CFR 114. U.S. Food and
Drug Administration, Washington, D.C.
13. FDA, U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
2011. Food Safety Modernization
Act. Available at: www.fda.gov/food/
guidanceregulation/fsma/ucm247548.htm
Accessed 30 May 2014.

14. Fleming, H. P., R. F. McFeeters, and F. Breidt.
2001. Fermented and acidified vegetables,
p. 521-532. In F. P. Downes, and K. Ito
(ed.), Compendium of methods for the
microbiological examination of foods, 4th
ed. American Public Health Association,
Washington, D.C.
15. Ito, K. A., J. K. Chen, P. A. Lerke, M. L.
Seeger, and J. A. Unverferth. 1976. Effect
of acid and salt concentration in freshpack pickles on the growth of Clostridium
botulinum spores. Appl. Env. Microbiol.
32:121.
16. Mattos, F. R., O. O. Fasina, L. D. Reina,
H. P. Fleming, F. Breidt Jr., G. S. Damasceno,
and F. V. Passos. 2005. Heat transfer and
microbial kinetics modeling to determine the
location of microorganisms within cucumber
fruit. J. Food Sci. 70:E324-E330.
17. Monroe, R. J., J. L. Etchells, J. C. Pacilio,
A. F. Borg, D. H. Wallace, M. P. Rogers,
L. J. Turney, and E. S. Schoene. 1969.
Influence of various acidities and pasteurizing
temperatures on the keeping quality of freshpack dill pickles. Food Technol. 23:71-77.
18. Morawicki, R. O., and M. E. Schmalko. 2011.
Prediction of out-of-container pasteurization
of pickled cucumbers using the finite-difference method. J. Food Eng. 107:289-295.

July/August Food Protection Trends

265


http://www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/fsma/ucm247548.htm http://www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/fsma/ucm247548.htm

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018

Evaluating the Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in Small Scale Abattoirs of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Training Hard-to-Reach Pennsylvanian Cheesemakers about Food Safety, Using a Low-tech Training Tool
Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers
Beoybon Taud thxee Bio
IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety Highlights
IAFP's European Student Travel Scholarship
PDG Highlight Beverages and Acid/Acidified Foods Professional Development Group
General Interest Paper The Very Real Impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act: A Roundtable Symposium Addressing FSMA’s Effect on Academia and Industry
Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover1
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover2
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 243
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 244
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 245
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 246
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 247
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 248
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 249
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Evaluating the Implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in Small Scale Abattoirs of Tigray Region, Ethiopia
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 251
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 252
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 253
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 254
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 255
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 256
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 257
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 258
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 259
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 260
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 261
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 262
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 263
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 264
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 265
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Training Hard-to-Reach Pennsylvanian Cheesemakers about Food Safety, Using a Low-tech Training Tool
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 267
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 268
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 269
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 270
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 271
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 272
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 273
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 274
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 275
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 276
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 277
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 278
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 279
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 280
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 281
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 282
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 283
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers Food-handling Behaviors of Student Volunteers
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 285
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 286
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 287
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 288
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 289
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 290
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 291
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 292
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 293
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 294
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 295
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 296
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 297
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Beoybon Taud thxee Bio
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 299
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - IAFP European Symposium on Food Safety Highlights
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 301
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - IAFP's European Student Travel Scholarship
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - PDG Highlight Beverages and Acid/Acidified Foods Professional Development Group
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - General Interest Paper The Very Real Impact of the Food Safety Modernization Act: A Roundtable Symposium Addressing FSMA’s Effect on Academia and Industry
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 305
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 306
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 307
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 308
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Industry Products
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 310
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 311
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 312
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 313
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - 314
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover3
Food Protection Trends - July/August 2018 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20230102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20221112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20220910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20220708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20220506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20220304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20220102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20211112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20210910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20210708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20210506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20210304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20210102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20201112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20200102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20191112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20190102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20181112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20180102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20171112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20170102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20161112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20160102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20151112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20150102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20141112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20140102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20131112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130708
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130506
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130304
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_20130102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201212
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201211
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201210
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201209
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201208
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201207
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201206
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201205
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201204
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201203
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201202
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201201
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201112
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201111
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201110
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201109
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201108
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201107
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201106
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201105
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201104
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201103
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201102
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201101
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201012
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201011
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201010
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201009
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201008
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201007
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201006
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201005
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201004
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201003
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201002
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_201001
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200912
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200911
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200910
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200909
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200908
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200907
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200906
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200905
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200904
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200903
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200902
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200901
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200812
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200811
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200810
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200809
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200808
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/trilix/fpt_200807
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com